Republic of the Earth and Dhana


Human system's structure.

Each person[1] is one of the single[2] parts[3] of human kind[4] forming an all[5]-unitary[6] entirety[7]. The entirety of the people constitutes the human system[8]. The human system is complex[9].

In every system, the parts are organised in a structure[10]. In the human system, people are organised in a hierarchical structure formed by levels assigning double valence. If facing upwards each person represents itself, if facing the bottom it represents the totality[11].

This double valence[12] does not depend on individual skills but on the level on which the life of each person begins; it origins the two classes[13] of the dominants[14] and of the dominated[15] and is the main cause for injustice[16].

Human societies are dominated by the strongest[17]. The strength of a person comes from the valence determined by the level on which his life started and by his own individual skills[18].

The relation between the level's valence and the individual skills depends on the structure's form of government. Nevertheless, the form of government affects[19] the strength of the single person but no form of government can modify the structure of the social system, because the structure rises from the evolution laws and not from the form of government, which can therefore only direct the structure in a certain way but can't modify it.

The evolution's basic rule of the entire universe is selection[20]. From elementary particles[21] to the most complex organisms, everything exists due to necessity, evolves constantly and undergoes selection: rules are caused by behaviours that in their turn are caused by necessities.

Time[22] has come for the selection rule to be substituted with the fusion[23] one, which can be achieved through a progressive indiscrimination[24]. After billions of years from the origin of the universe it belongs to, human kind can manage to modify the rule it rises from and form a new structure without hierarchical levels. It just has to want it[25].

To form a new structure it is necessary to induce people to place themselves in a different way from the usual one, substituting the behaviours and relations determined by the current system's structure with the behaviours and relations determined by the new structure one wills to form[26].

How should one place himself? With which behaviours and relationships?

In order to substitute the selection rule with the fusion one, the people on the lower level shall unite, in order to manage it autonomously and be able to apply upwards with a sufficient strength in order to escape the double valence rule. The people of that level have to constitute their own system independent from the superior ones and involve the people standing on the lower ones.

The behaviours of the people taking part in the fusion process shall be moved by a union spirit and based on common objectives, ignoring everything that tends to divide them.

The relations between the people that really want to achieve a fusion shall be similar to those that would be normal in the structure to be formed, temporally excluding[27], if necessary, those who do not participate to the new process.

At last, those people have to establish the fundamental[28] rule of the new structure, free from levels[29], following which each person represents herself in any time and place and all the people consider them selves as one only union in regard of the necessities common to each one of them.

Energy, water, food, health and the other fundamental necessities of the human being must be considered according to the union and not to each single part.

In regards of all those standing on the higher levels, the people on the lower ones shall express concretely their union.

The worldwide government.

All the forms of government of a structure aim to maintain the position of the parts on the highest levels. The pressure of the parts on the lowest levels determines the evolution of the forms of government. Each form of government, even if it appears different, repeats great part of the substantial features of the previous one.

The states haven't been able to solve the fundamental problems of humanity. With their choices, determined by the dominating groups, they have caused wars, public debts, poverty and hunger. The states have abused of some of their powers[30] and haven't used the ones they had been instituted and accepted[31] for.

It is not the case to abolish the states, but it is necessary to modify their functions and supplement them with those of other entities that will be assigned the power of doing what the states haven't. The states shall be transformed in territorial organisms of a planetary system considered in a unitary[32] way and governed in its entirety by an organism representing sovereignty and the will of all the inhabitants of the Earth in the most direct way as possible.

To modify really the relations between dominated and dominants, one has to adopt a form of government that is not an evolution of the previous ones but completely new and original.

The new form of government will have to origin from humanity's evolution stage in its entirety, independently from the existing forms of government and in some cases determining the same choices of the governments of the states.

The right form of government at the current evolution stage shall consider the economic and civil reality of humanity. Human society has become global. Social, civil and economic relations can be carried out among people from any place. Some social elements are common in all people. International law principles can be applied to every person and every group. Economic relations invade every part of the planet. The structure of human society has become universal.

To represent such a comprehensive social structure a universal and unitary political system is needed, with a government capable of asserting and achieving the acknowledge and shared principles of human society in its complex. The new system must not be a copy of the existing forms of government or their simple aggregation. It will have to be something more, something different. It shall start from the grassroots and represent the interests and the aspirations of the great majority of the people. It shall influence all peoples and states and affect people's reality everywhere.

The system the most adherent[33] to these principles is the universal[34] republic[35], with a worldwide government expressing the will of all the inhabitants of the planet. The hypothesis of the Republic of the Earth and of a worldwide government directly elected by all the inhabitants of the planet has been born from this conception.

Following this hypothesis, the sovereignty of every People[36] changes in to the sovereignty of all humanity, the territory of each state becomes common territory of all the inhabitants of the planet, and the maximum political authority will be the will of the people that live on it.

The Republic of the Earth isn't a state. Its government does not have to administrate any part of the territory of the planet or provide public services. It only has to guarantee freedom, justice, democracy, development, solidarity and first of all peace and safety to everyone for the inhabitants of the planet.

The entity and the government representing all the inhabitants of the planet, i.e. the Republic of the Earth and its government, do not need any army in order to guarantee peace and security or any enterprise of its own to guarantee economic development or solidarity, because their authority is due to their existence. No group[37], state or government can oppose the rules decided by an assembly of the representatives[38] of all[39] the people living on Earth.

The Republic of the earth was constituted on the 1st of January 2001, at the beginning of the third millennium of the Christian era. Its Constitution establishes the general principles and the concrete objectives it proposes. The Dispositions of Performance and some already adopted Regulations establish the modalities to run it. To give assent to this initiative means to believe in the possibility to build a better future than the one it is easy to preview by leaving things as they are.

The worldwide currency.

Work[40] is the fundamental value[41] measure of goods[42] and services[43].

The value of goods and services is the result of the relation[44] between the extent they are desirable and their scarceness.

Currency[45] is an exchange means[46], value measure unit[47] and value reserve[48].

As regards the shape, currency can be a piece of metal[49], a ticket[50] or a simple writing[51]; regarding the value, it can be[52] goods money[53], legal tender money[54] and trust based money[55].

Circulating banknotes are legal tender trust money and have no real value.

The majority of the bank money issued by the banking system[56] represents credits towards private individuals and public subjects[57].

This value-less currency is exchanged with credits and real goods and also lent with interests.

This is why people call it debit money[58]. States, enterprises and private individuals are indebted for loans in value-less legal tender money on which they still pay interests[59].

Who has debts has to employ his/her own energies to pay them back with the interests and, first of all, depends on the creditors[60].

The use of value-less money to purchase goods that have a real value and lending that money on interests causes an unjust wealth transfer from subjects producing goods and services to ones that issue and control that money[61].

By now the value of the monetary worldwide circulating mass[62] is nearly higher than one million billion Dollars, that is thirty times the wealth yearly produced on our planet[63] and more than the total value of all the goods on Earth.

Less of the five per cent of this circulating mass is used for wares exchange; the rest is employed in the financial sector, which yield comes from continuous wealth transfers from states and private individuals that consequently increase their debts[64].

The decisions taken by states and enterprises, the capability of satisfying the real needs of workers and consumers and even the freedom of the debtors depend on a few subjects that are acknowledged the power to acquire goods and grant loans with money having no value.

With that money you can control politics[65], economy[66], finance, culture and information[67], finance wars[68], govern the world and decide everyone's destiny.

What's the origin and cause of that value-less currency? How can a payment means without an own proper value be exchanged with goods and services produced with real work?

The origin goes back to the time a state acknowledged to a private individual the privilege of issuing money, guaranteed by credit instruments issued by the state against a loan. That's how the first central bank, or issuing body, and legal tender currency were born[69].

Since then, the already popular practice of issuing uncovered money was legitimate and in each state some kind of emission bank born and acted the same way.

The cause is the trust[70] towards the bank of all the people who accepted that money issued uncovered, convinced that the same bank would have fulfilled its commitments.

The Central Bank took advance of the general ignorance[71] concerning the real functioning of currency and used the people's trust to assert and exert its powers.

The money the Central Bank issues is then deposited in other banks, which they change in further deposits, which in their turn, change in to other deposits and loans, originating the multiplying process that provoked the current monetary mass[72].

Because its management requests a certain specialization[73], money concentrates in a few hands, due to the fact that with money you can purchase goods and services, from the concentration of money it gets to the concentration and unjust distribution of wealth.

The progressive wealth concentration[74] prevents the majority of the human beings to have at their disposal sufficient material in order to work and produce to satisfy everyone's essential needs[75], with progressive impoverishment and, setting a part rhetoric, more and more lack in freedom.

How can this situation provoking negative effects on the life of human beings be modified? In other words, how can wealth be redistributed?

Given that the cause of wealth's concentration is money's concentration, in order to redistribute wealth, currency shall be redistributed.

How can this be possible? Morally and legally excluding theft and expropriation (also not to repeat the way we reached concentration), the only solution to transfer monetary values from who has lots of them to who hasn't any is to issue a new currency and divide it in equal parts among all the subjects of the economic system, that is among all the inhabitants of the planet that can work and produce[76].

Currency is a payment means[77]. A currency's free issue rises from the right of ownership, which says that any of us can dispose of goods he owns legitimately.

Also, there is no international law norm preventing public subjects that aren't states and central banks to issue currencies different from the national and international ones.

Obviously, such currencies won't be legal tender but it's only an advantage, because it's exactly being legal tender the main cause of the actual monetary situation.

Everyone has the freedom to offer, ask and accept as payment whatever currency he prefers, as long as he follows the obligation to accept the legal tender currency[78].

Regarding the quantity of currency to be issued, economic and financial exponents and academics believe the monetary average value able to affect the current system is par to approximately 2,500 Euro per subject[79].

Such amount isn't significant for who has enough money but it allows the entirety of the other people, i.e. the great majority of the people, to invert the monetary concentration process, because it gives who has no money the possibility to satisfy the most urgent needs and to work and produce, therefore starting a new wealth redistribution process.

The new currency had to be – a part from the shape – different from the others and had to have or represent a juridically acknowledge value[80]. Not being possible to issue a new wares currency with an intrinsic value in the necessary quantity and not even to guarantee it with precious metals, the only possibility was to guarantee this currency with capitals of enterprises[81].

This way, while all the other currencies don't have a real issue value but they achieve it only when they are accepted as payment, the new currency can be issued with an original value[82], obtainable by dividing the enterprises capital value guaranteeing the currency with the amount of issued monetary units. It's like dividing one's own land property of a certain value in as many property bonds as the land's square meters are, each one of them representing an identical fraction of the land.

Issued and granted this way the juridical nature[83] of the new currency is much different from all the others. It's not a trust currency because its value isn't based on the debt of the issuer. It's not a legal tender currency because the law does not fix its value. Because this new currency is guaranteed by the value of bonds representing capital shares beginning from its emission, its juridical nature and therefore its most correct definition is the one of real value guaranteed currency.

A currency with the aforesaid features will never devaluate by keeping unchanged the amount of circulating money: an increase of goods supply on the market corresponds to a lessening of the prices and therefore a revaluation of the currency. This elementary principle, common to all the market makers, turns upside down the highly diffused current opinion, asserting that increasing the quantity of goods on the market it is then necessary to put in circulation more market money in order to be able to acquire them. Not been able to suffer devaluation, this new currency can be lent interest-free to solvent subjects[84]. The value of the new currency increases independently from the subjects keeping it.

To obtain this kind of currency, it is necessary that some holders of enterprises capitals[85] would be prepared to put shares of capitals at the issue's guarantee disposal.

Why should they do it? For free basic objectives. First, to bring money back to its original function of goods and services exchange means[86]. Second, in order to free real economy from the hegemony of currency and finance[87]. Third, in order to avoid a predictable financial breakdown due to the excessive expansion of debt money and its catastrophic effects on production and market[88]. Moreover, this currency can bring other two results: the substitution of currency that, even if having no value[89], is being lent against interest, causing an increase in public and private indebtedness; higher freedom for the political system[90], especially in regards to economic policies and international decisions.

This aspect is of absolute importance. The introduction of a currency with guaranteed value implies an international peace policy, not meant as the result of a war, but better still, as an essential condition from which draws origin a new process through which resources are used to produce instead of destroy[91].

At this point we can turn back to the initial enunciation asserting that work is the fundamental goods and services value measure.

As an extension, it can be affirmed that work should also be the fundamental currency value measure by means of which goods and services can be paid.

After having determined the amount par to 2,500 Euro as average monetary value to be assigned to each subject of the economic system, it was necessary to establish how many units of the new currency had to be guaranteed by the value equal to 2,500 Euro.

The monetary unit guaranteed by 2,500 Euro could have been equal to 1 or to a higher number. Obviously divisibility and, generally, the practicalness of the use of the currency had to be considered. But, not only. It was also necessary to launch a social economic message[92].

The result of the analysis of the real price of goods and services is that the worldwide average cost of work is round about equivalent to 25 Euro per hour.

For this reason the equivalent value of 2,500 Euro has been fixed to 100 units of the new currency, so that the monetary unit would correspond to one hour of medium normal work[93] in the world.

As effect of this decision, the value of the monetary unit turns out guaranteed by capitals with nominal value par to 25 Euro[94].

The last thing to do was to name the new monetary unit[95]. It was called Dhana. The first six billion Dhana where issued on the 14th of June 2001, guaranteed by a capital[96] with a nominal value par to 150 billions of Euro, equal to 25 Euro per 1 Dhana. Subsequently another 144 billions of Dhana where issued to be assigned, and an extra 10 billions of Dhana to be addressed only to humanitarian initiatives. Totally, the Dhana issued until today amount to 1510 billions, guaranteed by shares of enterprises capitals for a total nominal value par to 3,9310 billions of Euro.

Dhana is issued in coins[97], in tickets[98] and in electromagnetic[99] and data transmission money[100].

One Dhana is divided in one thousand Kana-Dhana[101], Dhana in shape of tickets is issued in the following denominations: 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 Dhana and 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 e 500 Kana-Dhana.

Also a one Dhana metallic coin has been issued and a series of dhana tickets with an intrinsic value par to 25 Euro per Dhana has been provided to be issued. Each ticket will be added a precious metal alloy lamina (silver, iridium, gold, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium) of different kind and weight according to the Dhana tickets denominations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 Dhana and 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 Kana-Dhana). Dhana in intrinsic value tickets won't be guaranteed by enterprises' capitals but from the value of the precious metals it contains: for example, a one gram platinum lamina will be inserted in the one dhana ticket, platinum's value is in fact, approximately 25 Euro par gram. Intrinsic value Dhana is convertible with enterprise capital guaranteed Dhana and vice versa. Intrinsic value Dhana had been provided to enter circulation on the 25th of April 2004 but, due to production and financial problems, the date has been deferred[102].

The Dhana Regulations[103] provides that each inhabitant of the earth aged at least sixteen will be assigned 100 Dhana, just against the reimbursement of the emission cost, different for each country, proportionally to the average per capita wealth.

The same regulation provides that for each 100 Dhana to be assigned, another 5 Dhana may be issued to be addressed to humanitarian purposes: it's the only exception to the rule preventing the issue of more than 100 Dhana for each inhabitant of the planet adopting Dhana as currency.

The decision to request, alternatively to the issue cost reimbursement, the commitment to lend 100 hours of work for each 100 Dhana assigned (one Dhana for each hour of work[104]), was taken in order to accelerate Dhana's diffusion. In some particular cases, the assignation of the 100 Dhana does not request issue cost reimbursement or commitments to lend work.

Who could have issued Dhana? Being a worldwide currency, Dhana had to be issued by a body charged by the Republic of the earth. The Dhana Regulations therefore provided the institution of Dhura, the issue, currency management and monetary system control body of Dhura.

Dhana does not need banks[105], their typical function is to receive money in deposits and then lend it earning on the difference between charged and allowed interests. Dhura's organisation will manage Dhana's saving and investment flows, guaranteeing to the depositors the reimbursement of the capital and lending money without interests.

Now we have asserted Dhana's legitimacy and we've defined Dhana's characteristics, it's time to establish if this currency can obtain trust in order to be accepted in payment.

Even if Dhana's real value does not rise from its acceptance[106], its market value, i.e. its price, depends, like the one of any other currency, on the extent it meets with general acceptance. The acceptance[107] of a currency depends on the offered quantity and on the circulation speed[108]. You can consider having Dhana circulation when a real value of 100 Dhana seems to be owned by the three per cent of the population of a group of people having mutual economic relations. Once this situation of available quantity and circulation speed is reached, the price of Dhana will be equal to its real value. Once this price is reached, Dhana's purchase power will be proportional to the relation between the quantity of available Dhana and the value of the goods to be exchanged.

What's needed at this point is the will to get to know and the trust to chose. Now the inhabitants of each Country can decide if they want to continue to accept legal tender trust money with no value, or chose this real value guaranteed currency. It's possible to decide between currencies representing debts and the currency representing capitals of enterprises.

We can keep moaning and protesting uselessly[109] against a socially, politically and economically unjust system, that damages the most honest and the less fortunate or take part to a project for the renewal of the system's structure, using the Republic of the Earth and its currency as means to build together a better future of the one we can reasonably preview[110]. It's possible to choose to continue to demonstrate for peace in the world or to take part to a choice and a proposal that, if shared by the majority of the human beings, sets peace as essential condition for everyone's well being.

Nevertheless, there are times when pretending not to see what goes wrong and could go worse, means to make things get worse; and there are times when to believe that things can go wrong without getting worse is more foolish than to commit oneself to make them change.

June 28, 2004.

                                                                    Rodolfo Marusi Guareschi




Clikka per ingrandire

Clikka per ingrandire

Clikka per ingrandire


[1] The person is the human being.

[2] The single is the individual considered in itself, separately from the others.

[3] The part is the unit in which you can divide the entirety.

[4] The human kind is formed by individuals with erect posture, with functional differentiation of hands and feet, with opposable hand thumbs, with great development of the nervous system, provided with strong intelligence and capable of articulate language.

[5] All means the totality.

[6] Unity is what constitutes union, what refers to it or what has union as its aim. All the parts of an entirety have common features.

[7] Entirety meant as mutual union, standing for cohesiveness of people or elements. An entirety is a grouping of object parts, called elements of the entirety.

[8] A system is an entirety of elements organised in order to form an organic whole subject to definite rules.

[9] In a complex system, the behaviour of each single part affects all the parts and the entirety affects the behaviour of each single part.

[10] The structure is composition, order and the way of being an organism.

[11] The structure of the human system can be represented as a pyramid made of steps where each step represents a level. To go upwards, who stands on a lower level has to make a bigger effort of who stands on a higher level.

[12] Double valence is also called dyadic valence.

[13] The class is a complex of things or people according to a certain order of the same kind. The Kind is an entirety of people or things having common basic features.

[14] The dominants are those who prevail against the others.

[15] The dominated are those who suffer or undergo others.

[16] Unfair is what is iniquitous.

[17] Stronger is who demonstrates to have more vigour and resistance.

[18] Theoretically, between two persons standing on the same level, the strongest one is the most skilled one, while between two persons with the same individual skills, the strongest one is the one standing on the highest level.

[19] Democracy gives more strength to the dominated, while despotism gives the maximum strength to those who dominate.

[20] Selection is the choice of the best elements or of the most appropriate ones for a certain purpose. Natural selection is a process through which, within the biological struggle for existence, the less talented individuals are eliminated.

[21] Elementary particles are the smallest particles of the universe and are produced by waives. Everything that exists is made of energy waives in space and time.

[22] Now, due to the evolution stage reached by human kind in its complex, it is possible to improve the life of those in a bad condition without worsening the situation of those well off.

[23] Fusion is the concentration of more parts in one only organism, through the formation of a nucleus rising from the union of more nucleus of minor valence.

[24] Indiscrimination means the indiscriminate employment of all the people standing on the same level.

[25] Will is the first condition in order to achieve possible aims, even if they seem improbable when first proposed, because will increases the probabilities of doing what initially appears just possible.

[26] It's the concept of «building reality» analysed at Palo Alto University, California.

[27] To exclude from relations precisely means «Follow your path and leave people the words» (Dante).

[28] The fundamental rule of a system is its base. For example, the base of the social system is family, the base of the economic system is property, and the base of the politic system is authority.

[29] As the hierarchical structure can be represented as a pyramid with steps, the new structure can be represented as a helicoidal cone, who's continuous path only assigns more responsibility to those standing in a higher position.

[30] For example the use of force, employed to make wars.

[31] The main function of the states should have been the organisation of the human societies in order to improve their behaviours and relations and guarantee general development.

[32] A universal and not local entity.

[33] «This constitution is established, firstly, by principles of the freedom of the members of a society (as men); secondly, by principles of dependence of all upon a single common legislation (as subjects); and, thirdly, by the law of their equality (as citizens). The republican constitution, therefore, is, with respect to law, the one that is the original basis of every form of civil constitution. The only question now is: Is it also the one that can lead to perpetual peace?

The republican constitution, besides the purity of its origin (having sprung from the pure source of the concept of law), also gives a favourable prospect for the desired consequence, i.e., perpetual peace. The reason is this: if the consent of the citizens is required in order to decide that war should be declared (and in this constitution it cannot but be the case), nothing is more natural than that they would be very cautious in commencing such a poor game, decreeing for themselves all the calamities of war. Among the latter would be: having to fight, having to pay the costs of war from their own resources, having painfully to repair the devastation war leaves behind, and, to fill up the measure of evils, load themselves with a heavy national debt that would embitter peace itself and that can never be liquidated on account of constant wars in the future. But, on the other hand, in a constitution which is not republican, and under which the subjects are not citizens, a declaration of war is the easiest thing in the world to decide upon, because war does not require of the ruler, who is the proprietor and not a member of the state, the least sacrifice of the pleasures of his table, the chase, his country houses, his court functions, and the like. He may, therefore, resolve on war as on a pleasure party for the most trivial reasons, and with perfect indifference leave the justification which decency requires to the diplomatic corps who are ever ready to provide it.» (From «Perpetual peace» Immanuel Kant, 1795).

[34] The positive idea of universal republic is of Immanuel Kant, from «Perpetual peace» dated 1795.

[35] The first republic in history was born in Rome in 509 before Christ, after throwing out Tarquin the Arrogant: it provided two consuls in charge for one year and, in case the city was in great danger, a dictator in charge for six months.

[36] The concept of people rises from the one of state: it's meant as the entirety of the inhabitants of a state.

[37] Group intended as an entirety of people from a certain territory, culture or religion.

[38] The Constitution of the Republic of the Earth provides an International Assembly formed by one member every ten million inhabitants, directly elected by the inhabitants of the planet, and a government appointed by the same Assembly.

[39] The people living on earth are 6.3 billions, and nearly 5 billion of them are at least 16 years old.

[40] Work is the entirety of all the human activities necessary in order to transform natural resources in goods or services, which can be employed to satisfy individual and collective needs or desires, and to put them at the user's disposal. It's one of the three factors of production, together with natural resources and capitals. The capital represents the work progressively employed during the production cycles implying the availability of a good or of a service.

[41] The value can be the price or the cost of the value. The use value is the utility a good has for who owns it. The exchange value is the amount of goods or services one gives in exchange of another good or service. The nominal value is the value indicated on a bond.

[42] Goods are the things required in order to satisfy the needs and desires of man.

[43] Services are the performance of activities and the economically useful effects of material goods or human activities.

[44] The extent something can be desired is a function of its potential utility. The scarcity of something rises from its rarity. Something desirable and scarce has an exchange value because it can be exchanged with a product having theoretically the same value. Generally, the market value is different than the normal or natural value. The market value represents the purchasing power of a product on the market or at a certain time; the normal value is the one that would prevail if the market forces acted without friction. The market value is the price the goods are exchanged, while the natural value is the fair price. Simplifying, within the value-work theory, the value of a product is constituted, or created or fixed by all the work employed to produce it.

[45] Currency is an intermediary economic good to be used in exchanges, i.e. any exchange means generally accepted as payment of goods and services and to pay off debts.

[46] Exchange means are the entirety of the means that can be used to carry out monetary transactions and include legal tender coins and paper money and the so-called bank money.

[47] The value measure unit is the reference unitary size used to measure economic dimensions. The value measure is the quantity of money units required to purchase a product.

[48] The value reserve is the setting aside of something to use it at the right time.

[49] Metallic money was born with the intrinsic value of the metal it was made of.

[50] Money in tickets is the banknote, which comes from deposit note or certificate.

[51] The bank money issued by the banking system is unavailable currency under shape of banknotes or coins but from a credit note on bank or postal accounts. It can be converted any time in cash money.

[52] There used to be also a kind of money called credit money, constituted by the commitment of the issuer to pay the equivalent value with monetary standard metal.

[53] Goods money used to have the value of the material it contained: gold, silver, copper. In ancient times they used to use different objects made in those materials or iron or bronze, instead, among the primitives the objects used as exchange means were shells, pearls, elephant tusks, furs, skins and cattle.

[54] Legal tender money doesn't have any intrinsic value and law fixes its value.

[55] Trust money represents a debt of the issuer and can't be converted in other kinds of money.

[56] The banking system receives as deposit banknotes and coins without any value, which he lends to private individuals and public subjects that in their turn deposit the loans in the same banking system, therefore multiplying the original monetary mass. Because the deposited coins and banknotes do not have any value, even all the subsequent monetary transactions (deposits and loans) do not have any real value.

[57] The states can pay back their debts only by making other debts par to the capital of the debt plus the interests. Practically, public debts are reimbursed by means of new public debts.

[58] Debit money is the money used to be credited as a loan. Who grants the loan marks a credit towards who receives it, which will then be in debt with who grants it.

[59] During the last ten years, the public debt increase of all the states of the world has risen double the increase of the worldwide produced wealth.

[60] The creditors of states, enterprises and private individuals are the banks: this is why people say banks have hegemony on politics (states) and on economic system issues (enterprises and private individuals).

[61] A subject issues a ticket (banknote) with no value. That ticket isn't worth anything until it remains in the stock of the issuer. When it is put into circulation, that ticket achieves value according to law. With that ticket the issuer can purchase goods, services or bonds that have a value. That way, due to a law, that ticket that isn't worth anything achieves value.

[62] The circulating monetary mass (M3) is made up of coins, banknotes, sight deposits, saving deposits, fixed-term deposits and monetary equivalents (bonds, certificates, etc.).

[63] The wealth produced on the entire planet in 2003 was par to about 35,000 billion Dollars, equal to about 49.000 billion PPP Dollars (Purchase Power Parity).

[64] The relation between the financial yields total value rising from speculative monetary transactions and the value of the incomes rising from real economy (constituted by enterprises producing and putting on market goods and services) increases continuously. That means real economy pays a price to financial economy, which rises from financial charges (interests allowed) on loans of money with no value.

[65] No governor can take the liberty not to consider the creditors that have granted loans to the state.

[66] Those who grant capitals to the enterprises can affect entrepreneurial decisions.

[67] Culture and information depend on public institutions and enterprises in their turn depending on credits.

[68] Wars are among the fundamental causes of the states indebtedness. In 1684, the Bank of England was born exactly in order to finance England's war against France.

[69] The 27th of July 1694, banker William Paterson granted a 1.200.000 pounds loan with an 8% interest rate to the English monarchy, which gave him credit allowances, used by Paterson to constitute the opening capital of the Bank of England, who was then acknowledge by the same English monarchy the faculty to issue further money for an amount equal to its capital. This way, with the gold the legitimate owners had entrusted him with (against issue of deposit certificates), Paterson guaranteed the issue of the money granted under shape of a loan to the English monarchy and then, with the credit allowances they gave him, he issued an equivalent amount of money. So Paterson tripled the value of that gold: he issued deposit certificates to the owners, he then issued the money he gave the English monarchy plus an equivalent amount of money he used to purchase goods and grant further loans.

[70] Without the citizens' trust any legal tender currency, indeed any currency, can't be exchanged with other goods and would therefore stay without value.

[71] For example, not everyone knows that central banks, even if they are described as state banks, actually are private enterprises who's capital mainly belongs to other banks.

[72] It's the so called monetary multiplier of the banking system: each bank translates deposits in loans then changed in other deposits and then again in loans, brining as result that the circulating monetary mass has an enormously higher value than the nominal value of the currency issued by the Central Bank.

[73] It's sufficient to have a look at the amount of documents, rules and data produced every day by the central banks.

[74] The one per cent of the word's population holds more than half the world's wealth.

[75] It's known that almost one billion people has at its disposal less than one Dollar a day; more than 700 million people suffer from hunger; 1.5 billions are illiterate, etc.

[76] Until now people always thought that currency redistribution could be achieved as effect of the redistribution of wealth but, really, because it's money concentration that causes wealth concentration and not vice versa, we have to affect the cause and not the effect.

[77] Payment means are all those means that can be used to carry out monetary transactions and therefore they include legal tender metallic and paper money, bank or credit money, like credit allowances, i.e. documents (cheques, bill of exchange, bonds) assigning to who owns them legitimately the right to receive from the debtor the performance or payment they indicate. According to the principle that «ownership has the same value as claim», the right to receive performance or payment is incorporated in the document, i.e. it's strictly linked to the legitimate and effective ownership of the claim and it is independent from the reason per it has been issued.

[78] Unless both sides have specifically agreed for a payment in a currency different from the legal one.

[79] It's the average value of the currency put in to circulation by the European Central Bank.

[80] Juridically acknowledge is the value assessed and ratified from public subjects and private individuals according to the laws in force.

[81] Guaranteeing the currency with capitals of enterprises means to pledge as currency's guarantee (for example pledge bonds) the equity capital representing part of the enterprises' net assets. This is the reason why, the currency guaranteed by capitals of enterprises can also be called production currency, instead of the actual financial currency.

[82] Because the guarantee is given before the issue and for the issue.

[83] The juridical nature of something is its particularity and its composition.

[84] Interest free loan is a principle asserted by all the main religions.

[85] Share holders and first of all investment found owners that manage shares and share capital assets.

[86] Those who work with finance also consider this problem.

[87] Who works in real economy, i.e. in production, in commerce and services, knows well the failures caused by the current monetary system.

[88] In fact, there are wars that have been, and still are carried out in order to avoid breakdowns. For example, the purpose for war in Iraq was to prevent oil's price from being denominated in a different currency from the Dollar, as OPEC was considering and as Iraq already had.

[89] The substitution of other currencies shall be gradual and shall proceed side by side with the modification of the political system.

[90] Even the possibility of using part of the assigned Dhana to cover the state's public debts has been hypothesized.

[91] War causes an apparent growth in wealth. Actually, war is the main cause of public indebtedness.

[92]A message saying that as goods' value can be measured by the employed work, also the currency has to be considered as work value measure.

[93] The medium normal value of work in the world is intended as the value obtained by dividing the wealth produced each year on the planet for the number of workers, for the number of working days, for the working hours in one day. Obviously it's a statistic amount, to be adapted case by case.

[94] This way, it has been possible to meet the guaranteed value of Dhana with the value of one hour of medium work.

[95]Perhaps not everyone knows that the word «money» has two meanings, and that in many languages it's translated with two different words according to its meaning. «Money» can stand for value measure unit but also for the material object representing it. In this text we tried to differentiate the two meanings by using «currency» for the first meaning and «money» for the second one. Anyway the most ancient etymology for «money» intended as value measure unit is «dhana» in Sanskrit language. In Swahili language «dhana» means thought.

[96] Pledged shares.

[97] Dhana coins are made of a metallic alloy plated with gold.

[98] Dhana tickets are made of synthetic materials with anti-counterfeiting applications.

[99] An electronic wallet allowing transferring value with no use of physical money manages electromagnetic Dhana.

[100] The Akadhana system manages data transmission Dhana via the Internet.

[101] Kana in Sanskrit means particle. Kana-Dhana is a particle (a thousandth) of Dhana.

[102]Dhana issued for humanitarian purposes has been issued in the 1000 Dhana ticket.

[103] The Committee of the Representatives of the Republic of the Earth directly issued the Dhana Regulations.

[104] Dhana is assigned against the commitment to lend work at the extent of one Dhana each hour of work in every part of the world.

[105] Even if it will need the banks' staff, which will feel part of a new economic and financial process.

[106] Because dhana is entirely guaranteed by real values and not by pure legal paradigm.

[107]There is a precise difference between a currencies market value, quantity of circulating currency and circulation speed, i.e. number of exchanges.

[108]To calculate the ideal relation between price, quantity and number of exchanges of a good you have to consider the quality of that good from zero to infinity. If a good doesn't exist, there is no quantity and therefore no existing circulation. Goods existing in too small quantities are rare but are not desirable, because they are useless.

[109] Protests on their own haven't stopped wars, haven't provided food to who is starving and haven't modified the states' choices.

[110] A little data on the current situation:

- yearly worldwide wealth: 4.05% agriculture, 30.31% industry, 65.63% services;

- percentages of expenditures against yearly wealth: 1.96% research, 11.39% health, 4.82% education, 2.37% weapons, 3.05% oil;

- water: 5 litres of drinkable water a day per inhabitant;

- food: the 12.7% of the world's population suffers from hunger;

- culture: the 23% of the world's population is illiterate;

- work: the 9.7% of the labour force is unemployed.